TPMS, also known as the tyre pressure monitoring system is an electronic framework intended to monitor the pneumatics inside the pneumatic tyres on different kinds of vehicles. TPMS is anticipated to caution drivers regarding issues related to tyre pressure by means of a dashboard marker light, a pictogram, digital numeric’s of PSI, basic cautionary lights (in case of post-retail TPMS) or a beep.
The TPMS framework screens tyre pressure and tyre temperature and consequently flags the drivers in the event that at least one of the tyres is observed to be 25 percent below the recommended tyre pressure. The best part is that the data that is being communicated to the driver regarding tyre pressure is in real-time.
TPMS are installed at both manufacturing plant (pre-retail) level just as at post-retail level. The entire objective of a TPMS is to prevent poor mileage and most importantly to decrease the number of accidents on road due to over-inflation. Likewise, TPMS expands the life span of tyres through the early acknowledgement of under-inflated tyre hence preventing fatal and expensive outcomes.
History of TPMS
In the 1980s, the TPMS was originally outfitted into extravagance vehicles in Europe. Here is a short rundown on the history of TPMS in terms of vehicles:
- Porsche 959 – 1986
- Scenic –1996
- Peugeot 607 – 1999
- Laguna II – 2000
After TPMS being incorporated as a standard feature in Laguna II during 2000 many of the vehicle manufacturers adapted TPMS as a standard feature.
In the United States, General Motors presented TPMS for the 1991 model year for the Corvette, correlated to Goodyear run-flat tyres.
In 2008, the European Union, as of November 1, 2012, imposed a law that all new passenger vehicle models (M1) must be outfitted with a TPMS.
Types of TPMS
TPMS can be partitioned into two unique sorts:
- Direct tyre pressure monitoring system (dTPMS)
- Indirect tyre pressure monitoring system (iTPMS)
Following is the detailed explanation of the above two types of TPMS:
Indirect tyre pressure monitoring system (iTPMS) do not utilize physical pressure sensors rather measure tyre pressure by checking individual wheel rotational velocities and different sign accessible outside of the tyre itself.
iTPMS frameworks depend on the rule that under-inflated tyres have a somewhat littler diameter and thus have higher angular velocity than an appropriately inflated tyre. These distinctions are quantifiable through the wheel speed sensors of ABS/ESC frameworks.
The modern version of iTPMS can likewise identify under-inflation in each of the four tyres simultaneously using a technique known as spectrum analysis.
iTPMS can’t gauge or show precise tyre pressure; they are relative and must be reset by the driver once the tyres are checked and all of the tyre pressures are balanced effectively. The reset is ordinarily done either physically or from a menu of the onboard PC.
Direct tyre pressure monitoring system (dTPMS) utilize pressure sensors on each of the four wheels (interior or exterior) to measure the tyre pressure. The sensors measure the tyre pressure physically in each tyre and display the data to the driver after being processed via a monitor or instrument cluster. These frameworks can distinguish under-inflation of the tyre in any mix, be it one tyre or all at the same time.
A few dTPMS units likewise measure the temperatures of the tyre too.
Direct tyre pressure monitoring system communicates real-time tyre pressures continuously whether the vehicle is moving or at rest. Its an advantage, however, in terms of battery the decreased life of TPMS is prompted.
Direct tyre pressure monitoring system (dTPMS) consists of the following components:
- External components:
- Component installed onto the valve stem (Internal components – inside the tyre):
- Analogue to digital converter
- Low-frequency receiver
- Pressure sensor
- Radiofrequency transmitter
- System controller
- Voltage regulator
Post-retail dTPMS units not just transmit while vehicles are moving or at rest, yet also give clients various propelled checking alternatives including information logging, and remote observing choices They can screen up to 64 tyres one after another, which is significant in terms of the commercial vehicles.
Numerous dTPMS units do not require specific instruments or program or reset, making them a lot easier to utilize.
Advantages of TPMS
The overall performance of a pneumatic tyre is firmly associated with its inflation. Key components of the vehicle like braking, handling, and fuel economy are profoundly connected with the tyre pressure. However, tyre pressure is also extremely important in terms of overall safety. All things considered, ultimately, tyre pressure needs to be monitored at all times and this job can be fulfilled in its entirety by no other equipment than a TPMS. A human cannot simply monitor the tyre pressure constantly that is why TPMS is very important.
Following are the critical advantages of using a TPMS:
No handling issues
Tyres that are overinflated or under inflated can cause various issues. Tyres that are overinflated will not have the right traction and grip, making it progressively harder to control the vehicle. Whereas, Under-inflated tyres can cause the vehicle to drift and pull to one side requiring frequent steering adjustments and even in case of drastic steering adjustment which usually leads to an accident.
Less Risk of a tyre blowout
An over-inflated tyre is at risk of a blowout, which can conceivably prompt an accident. By using the TPMS and maintaining your tyre pressure when the warning light goes off will help you decrease your odds of being involved in a tyre blowout related accident.
The greater lifespan of the tyre
Tyre pressure greatly influences the life of the tyre. The tyres that are not appropriately inflated can lose life by up to 25%. This decrease in the life span of the tyre can be caused by the striking difference of only 5 psi underneath the prescribed tyre pressure of the tyre.
Better Fuel Economy
Many studies have shown that for a drop of every one PSI in tyre pressure in correspondence with recommended tyre pressure there is about .3 % of drop in fuel economy. By keeping your tyres properly inflated with the assistance of TPMS your vehicle will keep on getting the most ideal mileage while also being light on your wallet.
The European Union infers that the tyres that are under-inflated today are in charge of more than 20 million litres of superfluously consumed fuel, dumping more than 2 million tons of CO2 into the climate. Also, 200 million tyres are being rashly squandered worldwide since they can’t complete their recommended life-span due to inappropriate inflation as discussed above.
With the help of TPMS, we can minimize the extra dumping of CO2 and scrap tyres into the environment.
How to install a TPMS framework on your vehicle?
Following are the steps of installing the TPMS framework on your vehicle:
- Ensure the vehicle is fit as a fiddle to drive
- Make sure everything looks in great shape such as tyre, steering and suspension framework
- If your vehicle is 2007 or later model, proceed to look at your proprietors manual to see if your vehicle is already outfitted with TPMS or not
- You now need to buy any reliable tyre pressure monitoring kit from an online tyre shop or any other e-commerce websites. This kit will cost you on average around $50 to 80$. The kit generally contains following of the components:
- Hex nut x 4
- Hex wrench
- Opener tool
- Rubber o-ring x4
- Tyre pressure monitor screen
- Tyre pressure sensor x 4
- User manual
A word of advice, be gentle with the components.
- You do not need any other special tools for this installation neither should you use any other tools since the components are fragile and specially manufactured
- You can install a TPMS on your vehicle even if your vehicle is already outfitted with one. You can simply install TPMS on tyre that has a valve stem from where you inflate your tyre
- Begin by plugging the tyre pressure monitor screen into the cigarette lighter
- In case your tyre pressure monitor does not power up you might need to put the key into the ignition
- Check tyre pressure for all of the four tyres using a precise tyre gauge and inflate or deflate the tyre if needed. This is important because post installment of tyre pressure sensors you want to be sure that they are working fine and how accurate they are. Note down the tyre pressure of all four tyres.
- It’s time to install all of four tyre pressure sensors on all four tyres one by one. we will show the procedure for only one tyre since the procedure is the same for all of the tyres.
- Firstly, install one of the four rubber o-ring on the tyre valve. This rubber o-ring will prevent dust, water and external debris to come in contact with the tyre pressure sensor
- Secondly, loosely install the hex nut onto the tyre valve. This nut actually act as a security measure against the possible theft
- Thirdly and most importantly find the right tyre pressure sensor for the respective tyre by looking for the label on the sensor. Labelling on the sensor corresponds to the respective tyre as follows:
- F .L – front left tyre
- F .R – front right tyre
- L –rear left tyre
- R –rear right tyre
Note: labeling might be different for different brands of TPMS
Since now you have identified the correct tyre pressure sensor for respective tyre, tighten the sensor onto the valve until it snugs and you do not hear leaking sound of air anymore
- Now by using a specially designed hex wrench tighten the nut to firmly secure the sensor in place
- It’s important to know that your sensor won’t come off in the future if you lost this hex wrench. So keep it in a safe place.
- Perform the same procedure for all of the remaining three tyres
- Check all of the secured tyre pressure sensors for a possible leak by spraying a solution of water and soup onto the sensor. Bubbles from the solution will indicate if there is a leak
- Lastly, move on to the tyre pressure monitor you priorly installed onto the cigarette plug to see if it shows the exact readings as per your noted ones (you priorly noted using a tyre gauge). This will let you know that all the sensors are working fine and how precise they are.
Hope this step-by-step guide will make things easy for you while installing a TPMS on to your vehicle.
Important key points and frequent queries regarding TPMS
Following are some of the important key points and the answers to commonly asked questions about TPMS.
- When TPMS warning light lamp goes off this implies the framework has identified at least one tyre with air pressure beneath 25%. In the case of the digital TPMS, you would know exactly which one is it.
- After TPMS warning light lamp goes off the driver ought to examine all four of his vehicles tyre and check the tyre pressure at the earliest opportunity.
- The TPMS warning light lamp ought to off after the tyres are appropriately inflated back again. However, if this does not happen to go for a short drive in your vehicle and this will do the trick for you.
- It is highly likely that in cold winter when your vehicle is at rest for a long period of time than your TPMS warning light lamp goes off. This is likely to happen when tyre pressure drops due to very cold temperatures, yet ascends to an adequate level as the tyres warms up when the vehicle is on the move.
- TPMS sensors transmits the following information:
- Special sensor id
- Tyre pressure
- Battery life
Note: transmission data might vary in terms of direct and indirect TPMS.
- A TPMS sensor can fail if the sensor is exposed to moisture and salt used on roads to melt ice. Also, TPMS might malfunction if the valve cap is missing. Galvanic corrosion can also impact the working of the TPMS.
- The average life of TPMS battery is 3 to 5 years, however, some high-end sensors have batteries that last up to 10 years. In terms of TPMS battery, it all depends upon your milage, on the off chance that a sensor transmits the tyre pressure like clockwork than the battery would not be able to keep up and drain much faster.
- TPMS isn’t something new. As per PitstopArabia about more than 200 million TPMS units are being trusted by drivers all around the world.
- TPMS uses ultra-high frequency to transmit data which is around 434 MHz
TPMS is a very useful tool not only in terms of the overall performance of the vehicle but also the safety of the driver, passengers, the tyre itself, and most importantly the environment.
Sometimes tyre pressure does not look terrible, yet the tyre pressure is half of what it ought to be. With the TPMS you’ll be a lot more secure out and about since you’ll know your tyre Tyre Pressure in real-time continuously.
Nowadays TPMS is not an option rather it is a compulsory component outfitted into the vehicles which is very good, however, utilizing the framework solemnly depends upon the driver and he must use it and keep his vehicle maintained instead of ignoring it.